Supplementary Material for: Effect of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy on Self-Reported Allergic Diseases in the First 3 Years of Life: Results from the GUSTO Study

Background: Maternal diet during pregnancy has been suggested to be an important early-life exposure that influences immune tolerance and the development of allergic diseases in offspring. Methods: We examined the relationship between maternal dietary patterns assessed using 24-h recalls and food diaries at 26-28 weeks of pregnancy and the subsequent development of allergic outcomes in the offspring in the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to characterize maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy. During repeated visits in the first 36 months of life, questionnaires were administered to ascertain allergic symptoms, namely, eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. At ages 18 and 36 months, we administered skin-prick testing to inhalant and food allergens. Results: Of the 3 maternal dietary patterns that emerged, the seafood and noodles pattern was associated with a reduced risk of developing allergen sensitization at both 18 months (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.7 [0.5-0.9]) and 36 months (0.7 [0.6-0.9]) after adjustment for a family history of allergy, and ethnicity, sex, and maternal education levels. No associations between the patterns vegetables, fruit, and white rice or pasta, cheese, and processed meat were observed with any of the allergic outcomes in the first 18 and 36 months of life. Conclusion: Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence the subsequent development of allergic outcomes in offspring.