Supplementary Material for: Effect of Anti-Hypertensive Medication History on Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation Outcomes

<b><i>Background:</i></b> The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis. However, approximately half of AVFs fail to mature. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) exerts favorable endothelial effects and may promote AVF maturation. We tested associations of ACE-I and ARBs, CCBs, beta-blockers, and diuretics with the maturation of newly created AVFs. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We evaluated 602 participants from the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study, a multi-center, prospective cohort study of AVF maturation. We ascertained the use of each medication class within 45 days of AVF creation surgery. We defined maturation outcomes by clinical use within 9 months of surgery or 4 weeks of initiating hemodialysis. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Unassisted AVF maturation failure without intervention occurred in 54.0% of participants, and overall AVF maturation failure (with or without intervention) occurred in 30.1%. After covariate adjustment, CCB use was associated with a 25% lower risk of overall AVF maturation failure (95% CI 3%–41% lower) but a non-significant 10% lower risk of unassisted maturation failure (95% CI 23% lower to 5% higher). ACE-I/ARB, beta-blocker, and diuretic use was not significantly associated with AVF maturation outcomes. None of the antihypertensive medication classes were associated with changes in AVF diameter or blood flow over 6 weeks following surgery. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> CCB use may be associated with a lower risk of overall AVF maturation failure. Further studies are needed to determine whether CCBs might play a causal role in improving AVF maturation outcomes.