Supplementary Material for: Dynamic Chromosome Reorganization in the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Pandionidae, Falconiformes): Relationship between Chromosome Size and the Chromosomal Distribution of Centromeric Repetitive DNA Sequences

The osprey <i>(Pandion haliaetus)</i> has a diploid number of 74 chromosomes, consisting of a large number of medium-sized macrochromosomes and relatively few microchromosomes; this differs greatly from the typical avian karyotype. Chromosome painting with chicken DNA probes revealed that the karyotype of <i>P. haliaetus</i> differs from the chicken karyotype by at least 14 fission events involving macrochromosomes (chicken chromosomes 1-9 and Z) and at most 15 fusions of microchromosomes, suggesting that considerable karyotype reorganization occurred in<i> P. haliaetus</i> in a similar manner previously reported for Accipitridae. A distinct difference was observed, however, between Accipitridae and Pandionidae with respect to the pattern of chromosome rearrangements that occurred after fissions of macrochromosomes. Metacentric or submetacentric chromosomes 1-5 in <i>P. haliaetus</i> appear to have been formed by centric fusion of chromosome segments derived from macrochromosomal fissions. By contrast, many pairs of bi-armed chromosomes in Accipitridae species seem to result from pericentric inversions that occurred in the fission-derived chromosomes. Two families of repetitive sequences were isolated; the 173-bp PHA-<i>Hae</i>III sequence occurred on all chromosomes, whereas intense signals from the 742-bp PHA-<i>Nsi</i>I sequence were localized to all acrocentric chromosomes, with weak signals on most of the bi-armed chromosomes. Two repetitive sequences cohybridized in the centromeric heterochromatin; however, the sequences differed in unit size, nucleotide sequence and GC content. The results suggest that the 2 sequence families originated from different ancestral sequences and were homogenized independently in centromeres, and that a chromosome size-dependent compartmentalization may have been lost in <i>P. haliaetus</i>.