Supplementary Material for: Differentiating Glomerular Inflammation from Fibrosis in a Bone Marrow Chimera for Rat Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Many types of glomerulonephritis (GN) undergo tandem connected phases: inflammation and fibrosis. Fibrosis in human GNs leads to irreversible end-stage disease. This study investigated how these 2 phases were controlled. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Using a rat anti-glomerular basement membrane GN model, we established bone marrow (BM) chimeras between GN-resistant Lewis (LEW) and GN-susceptible Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Glomerular inflammation and fibrosis were compared between chimeras. <b><i>Results:</i></b> LEW's BM to WKY chimeras with or without co-transfer of host WKY's T cells were GN-resistant. On the other hand, WKY's BM to LEW (LEW<sup>WKY</sup>) chimeras developed glomerular inflammation and albuminuria upon immunization. Quantitative analysis showed that the number and composition of inflammatory cells in glomeruli of immunized LEW<sup>WKY</sup> chimeras were similar to those in immunized WKY rats at their inflammatory peak. Thus, glomerular inflammation was controlled by BM-derived non-T cell populations. However, unlike WKY rats, LEW<sup>WKY</sup> rats did not develop fibrosis until the end of experiments (84 days) in spite of persistent inflammation and albuminuria. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Inflammation alone was not sufficient to trigger fibrosis, suggesting a critical role of glomerular cells in the fibrotic process. As LEW<sup>WKY</sup> chimera allows us to separate glomerular inflammation from fibrosis, this model provides a useful tool to study how fibrosis is initiated following inflammation.