Supplementary Material for: De novo Interstitial Triplication of MECP2 in a Girl with Neurodevelopmental Disorder and Random X Chromosome Inactivation

Loss-of-function mutations of the MECP2 gene are the cause of most cases of Rett syndrome in females, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, global regression, hand stereotypies, and microcephaly. On the other hand, gain of dosage of this gene causes the MECP2 duplication syndrome in males characterized by severe mental retardation, absence of speech development, infantile hypotonia, progressive spasticity, recurrent infections, and facial dysmorphism. Female carriers of a heterozygous duplication show a skewed X-inactivation pattern which is the most probable cause of the lack of clinical symptoms. In this paper, we describe a girl with a complex de novo copy number gain at Xq28 and non-skewed X-inactivation pattern that causes mental retardation and motor and language delay. This rearrangement implies triplication of the MECP2 and IRAK1 genes, but it does not span other proximal genes located in the common minimal region of patients affected by the MECP2 duplication syndrome. We conclude that the triplication leads to a severe phenotype due to random X-inactivation, while the preferential X chromosome inactivation in healthy carriers may be caused by a negative selection effect of the duplication on some proximal genes like ARD1A or HCFC1.