Supplementary Material for: Combination Cyclophosphamide/Glucocorticoids Provide Better Tolerability and Outcomes versus Glucocorticoids Alone in Patients with Sjogren’s Associated Chronic Interstitial Nephritis

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Steroid therapy has become an effective option for patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), while the use of cytotoxic agents is still debated. Our study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CTX) combined with glucocorticoids with those of patients treated with glucocorticoids alone. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> All patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome with chronic TIN admitted to the Division of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, from January 1, 2002, to April 30, 2016, and treated with steroids alone or combined with CTX were included. The immunological prognosis, improvements of renal function, and acquired tubular defects of the patients were retrospectively compared between the 2 therapeutic groups. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A total of 70 cases were included. Of these, 36 were diagnosed by renal biopsy. A total of 56 patients were treated with glucocorticoids alone, while 14 patients received glucocorticoids combined with CTX. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters between the 2 therapeutic groups at baseline. Compared with patients in the steroid group, patients in the CTX group showed better estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) improvement (21.35 ± 19.63 vs. 2.72 ± 19.11 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>, <i>p</i> = 0.006) but a similar decline in immunoglobulin G (IgG; 450 [interquartile range, IQR 910] vs.176 [IQR 1,910] mg/dL, <i>p</i> = 0.93) at 12 months of follow-up. CTX therapy was associated with better eGFR improvement (β = 12.96 [2.95–22.97]) even after adjusting for dry mouth, anti-Sjögren’s-syndrome-related antigen A and anti-Sjögren’s-syndrome-related antigen B positivity, hemoglobin, initial steroid dose, and baseline eGFR by linear regression analyses. Subgroup analyses revealed that the beneficial effects of CTX therapy on renal function were only observed in patients with baseline IgG ≥1,560 mg/dL or eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. The urine α1-microglobulin improvement was better in the CTX group than in the steroid group at 12 months of follow-up (β = 1.29, 95% CI 0.56–2.02, <i>p</i> = 0.001). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> CTX therapy is suggested for primary Sjogren’s syndrome patients with chronic TIN, especially those with higher IgG levels and abnormal renal function at baseline.