Supplementary Material for: Close Relations between Podocyte Injuries and Membranous Proliferative Glomerulonephritis in Autoimmune Murine Models

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a major primary cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Podocyte injury is crucial in the pathogenesis of glomerular disease with proteinuria, leading to CKD. To assess podocyte injuries in MPGN, the pathological features of spontaneous murine models were analyzed. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The autoimmune-prone mice strains BXSB/MpJ-<i>Yaa</i> and B6.MRL-(<i>D1Mit202</i>-<i>D1Mit403</i>) were used as the MPGN models, and BXSB/MpJ-<i>Yaa</i><sup>+</sup> and C57BL/6 were used as the respective controls. In addition to clinical parameters and glomerular histopathology, the protein and mRNA levels of podocyte functional markers were evaluated as indices for podocyte injuries. The relation between MPGN pathology and podocyte injuries was analyzed by statistical correlation. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Both models developed MPGN with albuminuria and elevated serum anti-double-strand DNA (dsDNA) antibody levels. BXSB/MpJ-<i>Yaa</i> and B6.MRL showed severe proliferative lesions with T and B cell infiltrations and membranous lesions with T cell infiltrations, respectively. Foot process effacement and microvillus-like structure formation were observed ultrastructurally in the podocytes of both MPGN models. Furthermore, both MPGN models showed a decrease in immune-positive areas of nephrin, podocin and synaptopodin in the glomerulus, and in the mRNA expression of <i>Nphs1</i>, <i>Nphs2</i>, <i>Synpo</i>, <i>Actn4</i>, <i>Cd2ap</i>, and <i>Podxl </i>in the isolated glomerulus. Significant negative correlations were detected between serum anti-dsDNA antibody levels and glomerular <i>Nphs1</i> expression, and between urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and glomerular expression of <i>Nphs1</i>, <i>Synpo</i>, <i>Actn4</i>, <i>Cd2ap</i>, or <i>Podxl.</i><b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> MPGN models clearly developed podocyte injuries characterized by the decreased expression of podocyte functional markers with altered morphology. These data emphasized the importance of regulation of podocyte injuries in MPGN.