Supplementary Material for: Clinical and Molecular Characterisation of Children with Pierre Robin Sequence and Additional Anomalies

<p>Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) is usually classified into syndromic and nonsyndromic groups, with a further subclassification of the nonsyndromic group into isolated PRS and PRS with additional anomalies (PRS-Plus). The aim of this research is to provide an accurate phenotypic characterisation of nonsyndromic PRS, specifically the PRS-Plus subgroup. We sought to examine the frequency of sequence variants in previously defined conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in the putative enhancer region upstream of <i>SOX9</i>, the regulation of which has been associated with PRS phenotypes. We identified 141 children with nonsyndromic PRS at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne from 1985 to 2012 using 2 databases. Clinical and demographic data were extracted by file review and children categorized as ‘isolated PRS' or ‘PRS-Plus'. A subset of children with PRS-Plus was selected for detailed phenotyping and DNA sequencing of the upstream <i>SOX9 </i>CNEs. We found 83 children with isolated PRS and 58 with PRS-Plus. The most common PRS-Plus malformations involved the musculoskeletal and ocular systems. The most common coexisting craniofacial malformation was choanal stenosis/atresia. We identified 10 children with a family history of PRS or cleft palate. We found a single nucleotide substitution in a putative <i>GATA1</i>-binding site in one patient, but it was inherited from his phenotypically unaffected mother. PRS-Plus represents a broad phenotypic spectrum with uncertain pathogenesis. Dysmorphology assessment by a clinical geneticist is recommended. <i>SOX9</i> CNE sequence variants are rare in our cohort and are unlikely to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of PRS-Plus.</p>