Supplementary Material for: Chromosome Nomenclature and Cytological Characterization of Sacred Lotus

<p>Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot plant that has been cultivated in Asia for over 7,000 years for its agricultural, ornamental, religious, and medicinal importance. A notable characteristic of lotus is the seed longevity. Extensive endeavors have been devoted to dissect its genome assembly, including the variety China Antique, which germinated from a 1,300-year-old seed. Here, cytogenetic markers representing the 10 largest megascaffolds, which constitute approximately 70% of the lotus genome assembly, were developed. These 10 megascaffolds were then anchored to the corresponding lotus chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization using these cytogenetic markers, and a set of chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers that could unambiguously identify each of the 8 chromosomes was generated. Karyotyping was conducted, and a nomenclature based on chromosomal length was established for the 8 chromosomes of China Antique. Comparative karyotyping revealed relatively conserved chromosomal structures between China Antique and 3 modern cultivars. Interestingly, significant variations in the copy number of 45S rDNA were detected between China Antique and modern cultivars. Our results provide a comprehensive view on the chromosomal structure of sacred lotus and will facilitate further studies and the genome assembly of lotus.</p>