Supplementary Material for: Chromosome Evolution in Dendropsophini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae)

Dendropsophini is the most species-rich tribe within Hylidae with 234 described species. Although cytogenetic information is sparse, chromosome numbers and morphology have been considered as an important character system for systematic inferences in this group. Using a diversity of standard and molecular techniques, we describe the previously unknown karyotypes of the genera <i>Xenohyla</i>, <i>Scarthyla</i> and <i>Sphaenorhynchus</i> and provide new information on <i>Dendropsophus</i> and<i> Lysapsus</i>. Our results reveal significant karyotype diversity among Dendropsophini, with diploid chromosome numbers ranging from 2n = 22 in <i>S. goinorum</i>, 2n = 24 in <i>Lysapsus</i>, <i>Scinax</i>, <i>Xenohyla</i>, and almost all species of <i>Sphaenorhynchus</i> and <i>Pseudis</i>, 2n = 26 in <i>S.</i><i>carneus</i>, 2n = 28 in <i>P.</i><i>cardosoi</i>, to 2n = 30 in all known <i>Dendropsophus</i> species. Although nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and C-banding patterns show a high degree of variability, NOR positions in 2n = 22, 24 and 28 karyotypes and C-banding patterns in <i>Lysapsus</i> and <i>Pseudis</i> are informative cytological markers. Interstitial telomeric sequences reveal a diploid number reduction from 24 to 22 in <i>Scarthyla</i> by a chromosome fusion event. The diploid number of <i>X.</i><i>truncata</i> corroborates the character state of 2n = 30 as a synapomorphy of <i>Dendropsophus</i>.