Supplementary Material for: Chromosomal Homologies among Vampire Bats Revealed by Chromosome Painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)

Substantial effort has been made to elucidate karyotypic evolution of phyllostomid bats, mostly through comparisons of G-banding patterns. However, due to the limited number of G-bands in respective karyotypes and to the similarity of non-homologous bands, an accurate evolutionary history of chromosome segments remains questionable. This is the case for vampire bats (Desmodontinae). Despite several proposed homologies, banding data have not yet provided a detailed understanding of the chromosomal changes within vampire genera. We examined karyotype differentiation of the 3 species within this subfamily using whole chromosomal probes from <i>Phyllostomus hastatus </i>(Phyllostominae) and <i>Carollia brevicauda </i>(Carolliinae). Painting probes of <i>P. hastatus </i>respectively detected 22, 21 and 23 conserved segments in <i>Diphylla ecaudata</i>,<i> Diaemus youngi</i>, and <i>Desmodus rotundus</i> karyotypes, whereas 27, 27 and 28 were respectively detectedwith <i>C. brevicauda </i>paints. Based on the evolutionary relationships proposed by morphological and molecular data, we present probable chromosomal synapomorphies for vampire bats and propose chromosomes that were present in the common ancestor of the 5 genera analyzed. Karyotype comparisons allowed us to relate a number of conserved chromosomal segments among the 5 species, providing a broader database for understanding karyotype evolution in the family.