Supplementary Material for: Chloride Intracellular Channel 4 Overexpression in the Proximal Tubules of Kidneys from the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: Insight from Proteomic Analysis

<i>Background:</i> Hypertensive nephropathy, a leading cause of declining kidney function, is a multifactorial process not well understood. In order to elucidate biological processes and identify novel macromolecular components crucially involved in the process of kidney damage, the application of system biology approaches, like proteomics, is required.<i> Methods:</i> Proteomic studies were performed using the renal parenchyma of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive Wistar Kyoto controls. Animals were sacrificed at early time intervals (6, 13, and 20 weeks after birth), the renal tissue extract was subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, differential expressed proteins were identified, and altered pathways were evaluated. One specific protein, chloride intracellular channel 4 (CLIC4), not implicated so far in the development of hypertension and nephrosclerosis, was further studied by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. <i>Results:</i> Proteomic analysis identified several pathways/processes and organelles (mitochondria) as being affected from the early stages of hypertension. CLIC4 was overexpressed in SHR at all 3 time intervals examined. This finding was confirmed by Western blotting and by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence; these morphological techniques demonstrated that CLIC4 was almost exclusively localized at the apical surface of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. <i>Conclusions:</i> Our studies provide evidence that major changes occur in the renal parenchyma from early stages of the development of hypertension. The overexpression of CLIC4 suggests that alterations in the proximal tubular compartment during hypertension should be further examined and that CLIC4 may be a useful early marker of renal tubular alterations due to elevated blood pressure.