Supplementary Material for: Changes in Gene Expression in PBMCs Profiles of PPARα Target Genes in Obese and Non-Obese Individuals During Fasting

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically and the World Health Organization estimates that 700 million people will be obese worldwide by 2015. Approximately, 50% of the Brazilian population above 20 years of age is overweight, and 16% is obese. <b><i>Aim:</i></b> This study aimed to evaluate the differences in the expression of PPARα target genes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and free fatty acids (FFA) in obese and non-obese individuals after 24 h of fasting. We first presented evidence that Brazilian people exhibit expression changes in PPARα target genes in PBMCs under fasting conditions. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Q-PCR was utilized to assess the mRNA expression levels of target genes. <b><i>Results:</i></b> In both groups, the FFA concentrations increased significantly after 24 h of fasting. The basal FFA mean concentration was two-fold higher in the obese group compared with the non-obese group. After fasting, all genes evaluated in this study showed increased expression levels compared with basal expression in both groups. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> However, our results reveal no differences in gene expression between the obese and non-obese, more studies are necessary to precisely delineate the associated mechanisms, particularly those that include groups with different degrees of obesity and patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 because the expression of the main genes that are involved in β-oxidation and glucose level maintenance are affected by these factors.</p>