Supplementary Material for: Candidate-Gene Association Study of Mothers with Pre-Eclampsia, and Their Infants, Analyzing 775 SNPs in 190 Genes

Pre-eclampsia (PE) affects 5–7% of pregnancies in the US, and is a leading cause of maternal death and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. To identify genes with a role in PE, we conducted a large-scale association study evaluating 775 SNPs in 190 candidate genes selected for a potential role in obstetrical complications. SNP discovery was performed by DNA sequencing, and genotyping was carried out in a high-throughput facility using the MassARRAY<sup>TM</sup> System. Women with PE (n = 394) and their offspring (n = 324) were compared with control women (n = 602) and their offspring (n = 631) from the same hospital-based population. Haplotypes were estimated for each gene using the EM algorithm, and empirical p values were obtained for a logistic regression-based score test, adjusted for significant covariates. An interaction model between maternal and offspring genotypes was also evaluated. The most significant findings for association with PE were <i>COL1A1</i> (p = 0.0011) and <i>IL1A</i> (p = 0.0014) for the maternal genotype, and <i>PLAUR</i> (p = 0.0008) for the offspring genotype. Common candidate genes for PE, including <i>MTHFR </i>and <i>NOS3</i>, were not significantly associated with PE. For the interaction model, SNPs within <i>IGF1</i> (p = 0.0035) and <i>IL4R</i> (p = 0.0036) gave the most significant results. This study is one of the most comprehensive genetic association studies of PE to date, including an evaluation of offspring genotypes that have rarely been considered in previous studies. Although we did not identify statistically significant evidence of association for any of the candidate loci evaluated here after adjusting for multiple testing using the false discovery rate, additional compelling evidence exists, including multiple SNPs with nominally significant p values in COL1A1 and the IL1A region, and previous reports of association for IL1A, to support continued interest in these genes as candidates for PE. Identification of the genetic regulators of PE may have broader implications, since women with PE are at increased risk of death from cardiovascular diseases later in life.