Supplementary Material for: Backup Mechanisms Maintain PACAP/VIP-Induced Arterial Relaxations in Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide-Deficient Mice

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide in the VIP/secretin/glucagon peptide superfamily. Two active forms, PACAP1-38 and PACAP1-27, act through G protein-coupled receptors, the PAC1 and VPAC1/2 receptors. Effects of PACAP include potent vasomotor activity. Vasomotor activity and organ-specific vasomotor effects of PACAP-deficient mice have not yet been investigated; thus, the assessment of its physiological importance in vasomotor functions is still missing. We hypothesized that backup mechanisms exist to maintain PACAP pathway activity in PACAP knockout (KO) mice. Thus, we investigated the vasomotor effects of exogenous vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and PACAP polypeptides in PACAP wild-type (WT) and PACAP-deficient (KO) male mice. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Carotid and femoral arteries were isolated from 8- to 12-week-old male WT and PACAP-KO mice. Vasomotor responses were measured with isometric myography. <b><i>Results:</i></b> In the arteries of WT mice the peptides induced relaxations, which were significantly greater to PACAP1-38 than to PACAP1-27 and VIP. In KO mice, PACAP1-38 did not elicit relaxation, whereas PACAP1-27 and VIP elicited significantly greater relaxation in KO mice than in WT mice. The specific PAC1R and VPAC1R antagonist completely blocked the PACAP-induced relaxations. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our data suggest that in PACAP deficiency, backup mechanisms maintain arterial relaxations to polypeptides, indicating an important physiological role for the PACAP pathway in the regulation of vascular tone.</p>