Supplementary Material for: Associations between Dietary Patterns and Post-Bronchodilation Lung Function in the SAPALDIA Cohort

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not restricted to smokers. Dietary habits may contribute to the disease occurrence. Epidemiological studies point to a protective effect of fruit and vegetable intake against COPD.<i></i> <b><i>Objective:</i></b> To investigate the associations between dietary patterns and parameters of lung function related to COPD in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Data were included from the<i></i> second follow-up assessment of the SAPALDIA cohort in 2010–2011 using a food frequency questionnaire. Principal component factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns, whose association with FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF2575, and COPD was investigated by applying multivariate regression analyses. <b><i>Results:</i></b><i></i> After adjustment for potential confounders, the “prudent dietary pattern” characterised by the predominant food groups vegetables, fruits, water, tea and coffee, fish, and nuts was positively associated with FEV1 (increase of 40 mL per SD, <i>p</i> < 0.001). Also for factor 3 (“high-carbohydrate diet”), we found a significant positive association with FEV1 (with an increase per SD of 36 mL, <i>p</i> = 0.006). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The main results are consistent with a protective effect of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, fish, and nuts against age-related chronic respiratory disease. If confirmed in prospective cohorts, our results may guide nutritional counselling towards respiratory health promotion.