Supplementary Material for: Association of Serum Bicarbonate with Bone Fractures in Hemodialysis Patients: The Mineral and Bone Disorder Outcomes Study for Japanese CKD Stage 5D Patients (MBD-5D)

<p><b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> Bone fracture is often complicated in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Metabolic acidosis is related to bone disease and muscle wasting, but it is not known whether acid-base disturbance is associated with the risk of bone fractures. The aim of this study was to clarify the association of serum bicarbonate level with bone fracture in HD patients. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Using a subcohort of the Mineral and Bone Disorder Outcomes Study for Japanese CKD Stage 5D Patients (MBD-5D), 890 prevalent HD patients (age: 62 years old, male: 62.8%, duration of dialysis: 8.3 years) with secondary hyperparathyroidism were studied. After measuring predialysis serum bicarbonate at a 2-day interdialytic interval, we prospectively followed them every 3 months, and examined the occurrence of any type of bone fracture or hospitalization due to fracture over a 3-year observation period. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Seventy-four bone fractures and 47 hospitalizations due to fracture were observed during the follow-up period. HD patients with serum bicarbonate <20 mmol/l had a 1.93 (95% CI 1.01-3.71)-fold higher risk for all-cause fractures than those with serum bicarbonate of 20.0-21.9 mmol/l. A higher bicarbonate level (≥22 mmol/l) was also related to an increased risk of bone fracture. A restricted cubic regression spline disclosed that the higher or the lower than 21.0 mmol/l of serum bicarbonate, the greater the risk for bone fracture. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Both a lower level and a higher level of predialysis bicarbonate concentration were associated with risk of bone fracture in HD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.</p>