Supplementary Material for: Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Genes at Early Gonadogenesis of Pejerrey <i>Odontesthes bonariensis</i> Using a Heterologous Microarray

The process of morphological development of a differentiated gonad from an undifferentiated primordium is a very important step of gonadogenesis. Studies on sexually dimorphic gene expression are important to increase our understanding of this process and to investigate how environmental factors such as temperature can regulate gonadal development. The aim of this study was to identify putative genes involved in sex differentiation in pejerrey <i>(Odontesthes bonariensis) </i>reared at male- and female-producing temperatures (MPT and FPT, respectively) using a microarray heterologous from the medaka <i>(Oryzias latipes)</i>, a closely phylogenetic species. Genes related to numerous processes presented higher expression at MPT, including those involved in muscular contraction, metabolic pathways, developmental processes, and reproduction. Genes induced by FPT were classified under the gene ontology terms of response to stimulus, transport and proteolysis. From genes selected for validation, at MPT <i>ndrg3</i> expression was observed in the somatic cells, whereas <i>pen-2</i> was detected in germ cells in the caudal portion of the gonads, where no apoptotic signals were observed. Finally, <i>hsp90</i> was highly expressed in somatic cells of the gonads at the FPT. The results suggest that the interplay of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes is important during the masculinization process and for the prevention of sterility following exposure to warm temperatures.