Supplementary Material for: Acute Kidney Injury in Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

<b><i>Background:</i></b> We evaluated the epidemiology and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS-1) and its subgroups: acute heart failure (AHF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and after cardiac surgery (CS). <b><i>Summary:</i></b> We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. CRS-1 was defined by AKI (based on RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO), worsening renal failure (WRF) and renal replacement therapy (RRT). We investigated the three most common clinical causes of CRS-1: AHF, ACS and CS. Out of 332 potential papers, 64 were eligible - with AKI used in 41 studies, WRF in 25 and RRT in 20. The occurrence rate of CRS-1, defined by AKI, WRF and RRT, was 25.4, 22.4 and 2.6%, respectively. AHF patients had a higher occurrence rate of CRS-1 compared to ACS and CS patients (AKI: 47.4 vs. 14.9 vs. 22.1%), but RRT was evenly distributed among the types of acute cardiac disease. AKI was associated with an increased mortality rate (risk ratio = 5.14, 95% CI 3.81-6.94; 24 studies and 35,227 patients), a longer length of stay in the intensive care unit [LOS<sub>ICU</sub>] (median duration = 1.37 days, 95% CI 0.41-2.33; 9 studies and 10,758 patients) and a longer LOS in hospital [LOS<sub>hosp</sub>] (median duration = 3.94 days, 95% CI 1.74-6.15; 8 studies and 35,227 patients). Increasing AKI severity was associated with worse outcomes. The impact of CRS-1 defined by AKI on mortality was greatest in CS patients. RRT had an even greater impact compared to AKI (mortality risk ratio = 9.2, median duration of LOS<sub>ICU</sub> = 10.6 days and that of LOS<sub>hosp</sub> = 20.2 days). <b><i>Key Messages:</i></b> Of all included patients, almost one quarter developed AKI and approximately 3% needed RRT. AHF patients experienced the highest occurrence rate of AKI, but the impact on mortality was greatest in CS patients.