Supplementary Material for: A Case with a Ring Chromosome 13 in a Cohort of 203 Children with Non-Syndromic Autism and Review of the Cytogenetic Literature

Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments of social interaction, communication and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. Frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in cohorts of individuals with ASD varying between 1.2 and 28.6% have been reported. In this study, we evaluated 203 Thai children who met the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), for autistic disorder or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and who had neither major dysmorphic features nor CGG repeat expansions of the <i>FMR1</i> gene. A routine G-banding chromosome analysis was performed at a minimum of ISCN 400-550 bands. A chromosomal abnormality was observed in one child (0.5%), a 41-month-old boy with a ring chromosome 13 detected by G-banding analysis and subsequently confirmed by FISH. SNP microarray analysis detected a 2.11-Mb deletion of chromosome 13q34, encompassing 23 genes. The <i>MCF2L</i> and <i>UPF3A</i> genes are among those genes that may explain the autistic features in our case. To the best of our knowledge, only one autistic case with a ring chromosome 13 has been previously reported. In this article, we also systemically reviewed 21 studies that utilized a conventional cytogenetic method to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with ASD. When we summed all cases with chromosomal abnormalities, including the case from our study, the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetics in patients with ASD was 3.2% (118/3,712).