Supplementary Material for: A Case of Two Sisters Suffering from 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis and Carrying a Mutation of a Novel Candidate Sex-Determining Gene STARD8 on the X Chromosome

Identification of novel genes involved in sexual development is crucial for understanding disorders of sex development (DSD). Here, we propose a member of the START domain family, the X chromosome<i> STARD8,</i> as a DSD candidate gene. We have identified a missense mutation of this gene in 2 sisters with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, inherited from their heterozygous mother. Gonadal tissue of one of the sisters contained Leydig cells overloaded with cholesterol droplets, i.e., structures previously identified in 46,XY DSD patients carrying mutations in the <i>STAR</i> gene encoding another START domain family member, which is crucial for steroidogenesis. Based on the phenotypes of our patients, we propose a dual role of <i>STARD8 </i>in sexual development, namely in testes determination and testosterone synthesis. However, further studies are needed to confirm the involvement of <i>STARD8</i> in sexual development.