Structure-based screening and molecular dynamics simulations offer novel natural compounds as potential inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isocitrate lyase

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis in humans and is responsible for more than two million deaths annually. M. tuberculosis isocitrate lyase (MtbICL) catalyzes the first step in the glyoxylate cycle, plays a pivotal role in the persistence of M. tuberculosis, which acts as a potential target for an anti-tubercular drug. To identify the potential anti-tuberculosis compound, we conducted a structure-based virtual screening of natural compounds from the ZINC database (n = 1,67,748) against the MtbICL structure. The ligands were docked against MtbICL in three sequential docking modes that resulted in 340 ligands having better docking score. These compounds were evaluated for Lipinski and ADMET prediction, and 27 compounds were found to fit well with re-docking studies. After refinement by molecular docking and drug-likeness analyses, three potential inhibitors (ZINC1306071, ZINC2111081, and ZINC2134917) were identified. These three ligands and the reference compounds were further subjected to molecular dynamics simulation and binding energy analyses to compare the dynamic structure of protein after ligand binding and the stability of the MtbICL and bound complexes. The binding free energy analyses were calculated to validate and capture the intermolecular interactions. The results suggested that the three compounds had a negative binding energy with −96.462, −143.549, and −122.526 kJ mol−1 for compounds with IDs ZINC1306071, ZINC2111081, and ZINC2134917, respectively. These lead compounds displayed substantial pharmacological and structural properties to be drug candidates. We concluded that ZINC2111081 has a great potential to inhibit MtbICL and would add to the drug discovery process against tuberculosis.