Stability analysis of seven agronomic traits for soybean [(<i>Glycine max</i> (L.) Merr.] Tokachi nagaha and its derived cultivars using the AMMI model

<p>The stabilities of seven agronomic traits were analyzed and the general stabilities of soybean [<i>Glycine max</i> (L.) Merr.] accessions were evaluated based on the additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) model using the founder parent Tokachi nagaha and 137 of its derived cultivars as materials. The objective was to provide a theoretical basis for effectively using germplasm in soybean breeding and production. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interactions were significantly different for each trait. The first three interaction principal components axes (IPCA) were highly significant, accounting for 61.28–70.00% of the total variation. The stability differed for the different traits. 50 cultivars with high general stabilities were identified. The general stability of Tokachi nagaha was moderate, as the stability coefficients (<i>D</i><sub><i>i</i></sub>) of its seven traits were relatively high; this must be considered by breeders using this cultivar as a breeding parent. There were significant positive correlations between the phenotypic values and their own <i>D</i><sub><i>i</i></sub> values for number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, and seed weight per plant. This would lead to the expectation that the phenotypic stability would be lower when a cultivar had more branches, pods, seeds, and high per plant yields. Thus, it appears difficult to breed cultivars that simultaneously have high yields and high stability.</p>