Spontaneous Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Dissection Requiring Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Abstract Introduction: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a sudden separation between the layers of a coronary artery wall, non-iatrogenic or trauma related, that has been recognized as an important cause of myocardial infarction. Objective: To report an emblematic case, in terms of angiographic images, clinical presentation and predisposing factors, whose clinical management failure led to surgical intervention. Methods: A previously healthy 48-year-old male farmer was admitted to the emergency room complaining of anterior chest pain described as "tearing", which started after physical exertion. Anterior wall ST-segment depression was observed in the electrocardiogram and troponin levels were increased. The patient then underwent coronary catheterization. Angiography showed a tortuous left anterior descending coronary artery with a dissection line involving proximal and middle segments, resulting in mild to moderate luminal stenosis. At first, a conservative approach was chosen. Control cardiac catheterization, 3 months later, showed dissection progression to the distal segment. Results: The patient was referred to surgical treatment. Internal thoracic artery and a great saphenous vein graft were used to revascularize the target vessels. He had an uneventful postoperative course. Conclusion: In this report, we describe a typical clinical manifestation of an uncommon cause of acute myocardial infarction. The dissection was started by an extreme physical effort, which is a known triggering factor. Management of these cases is always challenging because there are no evidence-based therapies or guideline-based recomendations.