Spectroscopic observations of Kepler/TESS solar-type supeflare stars
Recent Kepler-space-telescope observations found more than 1000 superflares on 300 solar-type stars (e.g., Maeahra+2012 Nature; Shibayama+2013 ApJS). Many of the superflare stars show quasi-periodic brightness variations with the typical period of 1-30 days and the typical amplitude of 0.1-10 percent. We conducted spectroscopic observations of these superflare stars using Subaru/HDS and APO 3.5m telescope (Notsu+2015a&b, 2018 in prep). The projected rotation velocity (v sin i) values are consistent with brightness variation period, and there is a good correlation between Kepler brightness variation amplitude and the intensity of Ca II lines (Ca II H&K, Ca II 8542Å). These results support that the above brightness variations are caused by stellar rotation with large starspots, and existence of large starspots should be a key to understand superflares.
More detailed spectroscopic studies (e.g., activity cycle) of superflare stars are important, but Kepler target stars are faint and not appropriate for such detailed studies. TESS satellite, launched in April 2018, brings us a large sample of brighter (e.g., V < 12 mag) superflare stars. We have started spectroscopic monitoring observations of nearby active solar-type stars (superflare candidate stars) in the TESS field. These results can have good collaborations with multi-wavelength project observations (e.g., X-ray, UV, polarimetry) of young solar-type stars.