Solid-phase extractions in flow analysis

<div><p>ABSTRACT Coupling solid-phase extraction (SPE) to flow systems has promoted a synergistic development. Whereas SPE mechanization leads to improved precision and higher sample throughput, as well as diminishes systematic errors and contamination risks, analyte concentration and separation from the sample matrix provides a remarkable impact on detectability and selectivity in flow analysis. Historical aspects, main cornerstones, tips for system design, and recent applications are critically reviewed, in the context of analyte(s) separation/concentration, sample clean-up, and release of sorbed chemical species involving both packed (e.g. mini-columns, cartridges, and disks) or fluidized (e.g. beads and magnetic materials) particles. Novel (bio)sorbents, selective synthetic materials, and stationary phases for low-pressure chromatography are also discussed. Moreover, the feasibility of SPE for sample treatment before chromatographic separation, as well as the exploitation of direct measurements on the solid phase (optosensing) are emphasized.</p></div>