Sleep and wake profiles on day 8 after inducing rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) lesions with ibotenic acid.

<p>(A) Diagrammatic drawing of lesion extent with ibotenic acid in the total 13 lesioned animals whose electroencephalograms (EEGs) were successfully collected after 8 days (RL84, RL116, RL140, RL142, RL162, RL164, RL183, and RL170, <i>n</i> = 8), 16 days (RL140, RL142, RL164, RL170, RL150, RL154, RL187, and RL194, <i>n</i> = 8), 25 days (RL116, RL164, RL183, RL187, RL194, and RL118, <i>n</i> = 6), and 8 days following 6-hour sleep deprivation (RL162, RL164, RL183, and RL170, <i>n</i> = 4) of lesions. The lesioned rats were numbered with the same color characters as the closed curves. The bilateral shaded areas indicate the RMTg area. (B) Photographs of representative coronal sections from a control (left) and a lesioned (right) rat by NeuN staining. The parts with red circles show the location of RMTg. IPN, interpeduncular nucleus; ml, medial lemniscus. (C) Hourly amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness. (D) Total sleep–wake amount during the 9-hour dark period (19:00–04:00 hours), the subsequent 12-hour period (04:00–16:00 hours) and the 3-hour light period (16:00–19:00 h). (E–I) Sleep–wake architecture during 04:00 to 16:00 hours. Mean duration (E) and total episode numbers (F) of wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep; episode spectrum of NREM (G) and REM (H) sleep; transitions between S (NREM sleep), W (wakefulness), and R (REM sleep) stages (I). (J) Hourly slow-wave activity (SWA) (expressed as percentage of delta power [0.5–4 Hz] in NREM sleep per hour) of NREM sleep. *<i>p</i> < 0.05, **<i>p</i> < 0.01 versus controls. Control (<i>n</i> = 9); lesion (<i>n</i> = 8). The horizontal filled and open bars on the <i>x</i>-axes indicate the 12-hour dark period and the 12-hour light period, respectively. Underlying data can be found in <a href="http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.2002909#pbio.2002909.s001" target="_blank">S1 Data</a>.</p>