Silver nanoparticles synthesized with <i>Rumex hymenosepalus</i> extracts: effective broad-spectrum microbicidal agents and cytotoxicity study

<p>We synthesized silver nanoparticles using <i>Rumex hymenosepalus</i> root extract (Rh). Nanoparticles were subjected to a purification process and final product is a composite of Rh and silver nanoparticles (AgNPsC). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to perform a microstructure study. Additionally, two fractions (RhA and RhB) were obtained from the original extract by filtration with tetrahydrofuran (THF); both fractions were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); total polyphenol content was also determined. Separate inhibition tests for AgNPsC and RhA and RhB were applied to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast (<i>Candida albicans</i>) using the well diffusion method. Extract fractions were found to have inhibitory effects only over Gram-positive bacteria, and silver nanoparticles showed inhibitory effects over all the evaluated microorganisms. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay in mononuclear peripheral blood cells. In addition, we assessment AgNPsC in THP-1 monocyte cell line, using the cell viability estimation by trypan blue dye exclusion test (TB) and Live/Dead (LD) cell viability assays by confocal microscopy.</p>