Secondary metabolites from the fermented rice of the fungus <i>Monascus purpureus</i> and their bioactivities

<p>Phytochemical investigation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of a yellow mutant of the fungus <i>Monascus purpureus</i> BCRC 38110 (Eurotiaceae) grown on rice resulted in the isolation of one new azaphilone derivative, monapurpureusone (<b>1</b>), one acetophenone metabolite isolated for the first time from natural source, monapurpureusin (<b>2</b>), along with four known compounds, TW94a (<b>3</b>), ergosterol (<b>4</b>), monascin (<b>5</b>), and ankaflavin (<b>6</b>). The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and by the comparison of their NMR data with those of related compounds. Some phytochemicals were evaluated for both anti-inflammatory activity through the measurement of nitric oxide (NO) production levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine-derived macrophages RAW264.7 cell lines and antioxidant activities.</p>