Sea biscuit life cycle

2013-08-07T21:03:05Z (GMT) by Bruno C. Vellutini Alvaro E. Migotto

This video shows the life cycle of Clypeaster subdepressus, an irregular echinoderm belonging to the Clypeasteroida (sand dollars and sea biscuits). Footage depicts all developmental stages: adults releasing gametes (eggs and sperm), fertilization of the egg, first embryonic cell divisions, gastrulation sequence, swimming blastulae and gastrulae, swimming pluteus larvae with 2/4/6/8 arms, developing juvenile rudiment inside larvae, settlement behavior of competent plutei, and complete metamorphosis into a juvenile.

For the complete description and further details please consult the pulished article in the link below.