Sample size and effort;Spatial model comparisons;Estimated spatial use parameters;Camera trap locations;Temporal activity distributions from Spatio-temporal interactions facilitate large carnivore sympatry across a resource gradient

Sample size and efforts in four study sites, namely Bhadra, Nagarahole, Bandipur and Bilgiri Ranganaswamy Temple, in Western Ghats, India.;Model comparisons to test for independence in site-use between carnivore species pairs in the four parks. For each species-pair we compared (1) a full model where parameter ϕ is estimated and (2) a reduced model where ϕ=1. K= number of parameters.;Parameter estimates for species-wise site-use probability ψ and detectability p, and, ϕ for species-pairs based on multi-species occupancy models. Estimates reflect values from the best model, chosen based on AIC values. Values in parentheses are estimated Standard Errors for the parameters. The subscripts ‘D’, ‘L’ and ‘T’ for the parameters indicate dhole, leopard and tiger respectively;Locations of camera trap stations in (a) Bhadra, (b) Nagarahole, (c) Biligiri and (d) Bandipur for photo-capture of large carnivores.;Probability distributions for temporal activities of the three carnivores in (a) Bhadra, (b) Nagarahole, (c) Bandipur and (d) Biligiri. The distributions are plotted around a 24-hour circular diel. The arrows within the plot indicate the mean value (for the most likely distribution for mixture distributions) for the three species in the corresponding parks.