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We compared the technological impact of five countries—the United States, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, and China—using two indicators that we developed—the Patent–Paper Citation Index (PPCI) and the High Feature-Valued Patent–Paper Citation Index (HFPPCI)—and whose reliabilities we validated. First, we analyzed both the scientific and technological impacts of papers using the PPCI in combination with the Normalized Citation Impact. Results revealed the relatively high scientific and technological impacts of the United States in all disciplines and China’s rapid rise of the both impacts. However, PPCI values tended to asymptotically approach average values as the share of papers increased.Second, we analyzed the relative citedness of papers in high-feature-valued patents in terms of patent family size, patent–patent forward citations, and patent generality index—using the HFPPCI. Results showed the relative citedness of each country’s papers with high-feature-valued patents among all papers from the country.