Role of brain glutamic acid metabolism changes in neurodegenerative pathologies

<p>Glutamic acid is an essential participant of brain metabolism. I t is known that the glutamate is a</p> <p>neurotransmitter in a numerous part of the brain synapses and acts through various ionotropic or</p> <p>metabotropic receptors. Multiple alterations of the brain glutamate system are observed in both acute</p> <p>and chronic brain injures. Glutamate metabolism changes take place in many neurodegenerative</p> <p>pathologies, such as brain ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease,</p> <p>amyotrophic lateral sclerosis etc. These disruptions may be related to changes of glutamate</p> <p>metabolism enzyme activities, alterations of the main energy formation reactions in mitochondria, and</p> <p>shifts of oxidation/redox balance in cells. Potential targets for therapy of neurodegenerative diseases,</p> <p>especially in chronic treatment, can include the drugs for recovery of glutamate metabolism system.</p>