Retention System and Splinting on Morse Taper Implants in the Posterior Maxilla by 3D Finite Element Analysis

<div><p>Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate different retention systems (cement- or screw-retained) and crown designs (non-splinted or splinted) of fixed implant-supported restorations, in terms of stress distributions in implants/components and bone tissue, by 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Four 3D models were simulated with the InVesalius, Rhinoceros 3D, and SolidWorks programs. Models were made of type III bone from the posterior maxillary area. Models included three 4.0-mm-diameter Morse taper (MT) implants with different lengths, which supported metal-ceramic crowns. Models were processed by the Femap and NeiNastran programs, using an axial force of 400 N and oblique force of 200 N. Results were visualized as the von Mises stress and maximum principal stress (σmax). Under axial loading, there was no difference in the distribution of stress in implants/components between retention systems and splinted crowns; however, in oblique loading, cemented prostheses showed better stress distribution than screwed prostheses, whereas splinted crowns tended to reduce stress in the implant of the first molar. In the bone tissue cemented prostheses showed better stress distribution in bone tissue than screwed prostheses under axial and oblique loading. The splinted design only had an effect in the screwed prosthesis, with no influence in the cemented prosthesis. Cemented prostheses on MT implants showed more favorable stress distributions in implants/components and bone tissue. Splinting was favorable for stress distribution only for screwed prostheses under oblique loading.</p></div>