Results of the subject with congenital upper-limb deficiency.

Online Performance estimated (a) before and (b) after donning/doffing for all metrics, and (c) comparison of the mean performance estimated before and after donning/doffing (*p < 0.05 and ***p < 0.001). The error bars represent the standard deviations of the performance values. Although the overall online performance decreases after donning/doffing as the results of the able-bodied subjects, the original performance obtained before donning/doffing is fairly retained even after donning/doffing. Unlike the online results of the able-bodied subjects, significant decrease in online performance is shown in only two performance metrics, throughput and user effort, after donning/doffing. Also, two other performance metrics, overshoot and path efficiency, even show slightly better performance after donning/doffing in average.