Results of penetration depth, superficial skin thickness calculations, and reproducibility measurements.

<p><b>(a) Theoretical prediction of spectrally resolved penetration depth of TRS at each location</b>. DCS penetration is facilitated by operating at the wavelength of maximum penetration (785nm). The inset figure shows the DEXA scan and skin caliper measurements of superficial skin thickness (mean ± SD), and the mean maximum penetration depth for TRS averaged over 630–1100 nm range and CW at 785 nm. Proximal locations show relatively lower penetration depth than distal locations. <b>(b) Repeatability measurements</b> on the absorption spectrum (mean ± SD) at trochanter location, illustrating robustness and repeatability. The inset reports the CV for measurements performed with the two techniques (< 5% and 25% for TRS and DCS, respectively).</p>