Removal of the UV Filter Benzophenone-2 in Aqueous Solution by Ozonation: Kinetics, Intermediates, Pathways and Toxicity

<p>Benzophenone-2 (BP-2) is an important type of UV filter that has been widely used and detected in the aquatic environment with greater estrogenic toxicity. In our work, the removal of BP-2 with the initial concentration of 25 mg L<sup>−1</sup> was first carried out by ozone at different pH (ranging from pH 3.0 to 11.0), and we found a positive correlation between the pH values and the degradation efficiency of BP-2, among which the more rapid removal of BP-2 in alkaline condition was observed than acidic and neutral conditions. For the influence of aqueous humic acid (HA, the concentration ranged from 0 ppm to 100 ppm), the degradation rate of BP-2 by ozonation was first increased with the growth of humic acid concentration (from 0 ppm to 5 ppm), reaching to maximum at 5 ppm of HA and subsequently decreased with the growth of HA concentration (from 5 ppm to 100 ppm). Fourteen intermediate products in the ozonation process were distinguished by an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer and then two degradation pathways were proposed. Through the theoretical calculation, we found the carbanyl group of BP-2 has the most reactivity to be easily attacked by ozone, providing us guides and theoretical basis on the supposed intermediate products. Furthermore, the <i>P. phosphoreum</i> acute toxicity test was conducted to evaluate the potential toxicity during the ozonation process.</p>