Removal of acetaminophen and carbamazepine in single and binary systems with immobilized laccase from <i>Trametes hirsuta</i>

<p>Laccase-based bioprocesses represent a fascinating prospective for the removal of contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters. In this work, immobilized laccase from <i>Trametes hirsuta</i> was used to transform carbamazepine (CBZ) and acetaminophen (ACE) in spiked single and binary solutions. The effects of pH, time course and reaction pathways on the transformation were studied. <i>T. hirsuta</i> secreted only laccase. The immobilized laccase was able to degrade 40% and 70% of CBZ and ACE, respectively, in the binary system, while only 5% and 25% of transformation was achieved in the single system for ACE and CBZ, respectively. The maximum removal of acetaminophen was found at pH 7. These obtained results confirm that the acetaminophen is a good laccase mediator compound. The most probable pathway in the binary system involved the formation of acetaminophen dimers and ACE-ACE-CBZ oligomers.</p>