Reliability of a field-based drop vertical jump screening test for ACL injury risk assessment
Objectives: There is an epidemic of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in youth athletes. Poor neuromuscular control is an easily modifiable risk factor for ACL injury, and can be screened for by observing dynamic knee valgus on landing in a drop vertical jump test. This study aims to validate a simple, clinically useful population-based screening test to identify at-risk athletes prior to participation in organized sports. We hypothesized that both physicians and allied health professionals would be accurate in subjectively assessing injury risk in real-time field and office conditions without motion analysis data and would be in agreement with each other. Methods: We evaluated the inter-rater reliability of risk assessment by various observer groups, including physicians and allied health professionals, commonly involved in the care of youth athletes. Fifteen athletes age 11–17 were filmed performing a drop vertical jump test. These videos were viewed by 242 observers including orthopaedic surgeons, orthopaedic residents/fellows, coaches, athletic trainers (ATCs), and physical therapists (PTs), with the observer asked to subjectively estimate the risk level of each jumper. Objective injury risk was calculated using normalized knee separation distance (measured using Dartfish, Alpharetta, GA), based on previously published studies. Risk assessments by observers were compared to each other to determine inter-rater reliability, and to the objectively calculated risk level to determine sensitivity and specificity. Seventy one observers repeated the test at a minimum of 6 weeks later to determine intra-rater reliability. Results: Between groups, the inter-rater reliability was high, κ = 0.92 (95% CI 0.829–0.969, p < 0.05), indicating that no single group gave better (or worse) assessments, including comparisons between physicians and allied health professionals. With a screening cutoff isolated to subjects identified by observers as “high risk”, the sensitivity was 63.06% and specificity 82.81%. Reducing the screening cutoff to also include jumpers identified as “medium risk” increased sensitivity to 95.04% and decreased the specificity to 46.07%. Intra-rater reliability was moderate, κ = 0.55 (95% CI 0.49–0.61, p < 0.05), indicating that individual observers made reproducible risk assessments. Conclusions: This study supports the use of a simple, field-based observational drop vertical jump screening test to identify athletes at risk for ACL injury. Our study shows good inter- and intra-rater reliability and high sensitivity and suggests that screening can be performed without significant training by physicians as well as allied health professionals, including: coaches, athletic trainers and physical therapists. Identification of these high-risk athletes may play a role in enrollment in appropriate preventative neuromuscular training programs, which have been shown to decrease the incidence of ACL injuries in this population.