Quantitative Chemically Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Reactions at Buried Interfaces with Few Nanometer Precision

We demonstrate quantitative, chemically specific imaging of buried nanostructures, including oxidation and diffusion reactions at buried interfaces, using nondestructive tabletop extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coherent diffractive imaging (CDI). Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO<sub>2</sub> are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither visible microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interface. Short wavelength high harmonic beams can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Quantitative analysis shows that the reflected EUV light is extremely sensitive to the formation of multiple oxide layers, as well as interdiffusion of materials occurring at the metal–metal and metal–insulator boundaries deep within the nanostructure with few nanometers precision.