QbD-driven development and validation of HPLC method for determination of Bisphenol A and Bis-sulphone in environmental samples
A large number of hazardous chemicals have entered the environment due to the rapid growth of urbanisation and industrial development and are exerting harmful effects on wildlife as well as on human health. Plastic materials are one of the most leading causes for this contamination which are widely used in daily activities of human beings, i.e. disposal purpose, food packaging, bottles, containers, cups, grocery bags, etc. These materials contain Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bis-sulphone (BIS) which have been recognised as potential endocrine disruptors. In the present study, a selective and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based method was developed with the mobile phase of 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer-acetonitrile (58:42 v/v, pH: 5) using quality by design (QbD) approach and the method was validated for the simultaneous assessment of BPA and BIS. The method was observed with a good linearity range of 50–500 ng/mL with an r2 value of 0.998 and 0.999 for BPA and BIS, respectively. The developed and validated method was applied for the estimation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in sewage water and soil samples. The results showed a considerable amount of BPA and BIS in the samples. This preliminary data explored the presence of BPA and BIS in these environmental samples that give the primary awareness of the effluence of BPA and BIS in the environment.