Production and extraction of astaxanthin from <i>Phaffia rhodozyma</i> and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in <i>Carassius auratus</i>

<div><p>The effect of astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4′-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in <i>Carassius auratus</i>, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast <i>Phaffia rhodozyma</i> was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from <i>P. rhodozyma</i>, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from <i>P. rhodozyma</i> showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results.</p></div>