Production and characterization of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide with different oxidation times

ABSTRACT In this work aqueous dispersions of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were prepared in different oxidation times in order to verify the influence of the oxidation time on the characteristics of the final flakes. GO dispersions were prepared by the modified Hummers method, using the following oxidation times: 4 h; 1 day; 3 days; 7 days and 10 days. Afterwards the dispersions of GO were subjected to the reduction treatment with ascorbic acid, obtaining the rGO. Samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Raman spectroscopy showed the variation of the intensity ratio between the D and G bands (ID / IG) as the oxidation time was increased. The XPS analysis indicated the alteration of the percentages of carbon (C) and oxygen (O). The SEM analysis correlated the morphology of the flakes with the increase of the oxidation time. Finally, with the aid of XRD, the variation of the interplanar distance was verified.