Process optimization, physicochemical characterization and antioxidant potential of novel wine from an underutilized fruit Carissa spinarum L. (Apocynaceae)
Abstract Carissa spinarum L., is a tropical underutilized fruit abundantly available during summer season, which is delicious to taste with an astringency flavor and fruity aroma. Hence, the present investigation was aimed at optimizing fermentation conditions for the production of wine and to assess its physiochemical composition and antioxidant activity. Response surface methodology coupled with central composite design was employed for the optimization studies. It was determined that fermentation temperature of 25°C, pH of 3.5 and inoculum size of 10% (v/v) resulted in quality wine with 8.3% (v/v) of ethanol content. Further, physicochemical composition and antioxidant activity of the optimized wine was found to be significantly higher or on par with other tropical fruit wines reported previously. Sensory analysis indicated that wine was good in terms of overall acceptability. Thus, availability of C. spinarum fruits during their glut season can be utilized for winemaking and could generate revenue among rural households further adding significant input to the economy of fruit wine market.