## Problem Theory

2017-05-01T08:45:56Z (GMT)
<div>The Turing machine, as it was presented by Turing himself, models the calculations done by a person. This means that we can compute whatever any Turing machine can compute, and therefore we are Turing complete. The question addressed here is why, Why are we Turing complete?</div><div><br></div><div>Being Turing complete also means that somehow our brain implements the function that a universal Turing machine implements. The point is that evolution achieved Turing completeness, and then the explanation should be evolutionary, but our explanation is mathematical. The trick is to introduce a mathematical theory of problems, under the basic assumption that solving more problems provides more survival opportunities.<br></div><div><br></div><div>So we build a problem theory by fusing set and computing theories. Then we construct a series of resolvers, where each resolver is defined by its computing capacity, that exhibits the following property: all problems solved by a resolver are also solved by the next resolver in the series if certain condition is satisfied. The last of the conditions is to be Turing complete.<br></div><div><br></div><div>This series defines a resolvers hierarchy that could be seen as a framework for the evolution of cognition. Then the answer to our question would be: to solve most problems. By the way, the problem theory defines adaptation, perception, and learning, and it shows that there are just three ways to resolve any problem: routine, trial, and analogy. And, most importantly, this theory demonstrates how problems can be used to found mathematics and computing on biology.</div>