Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a population in southern Brazil (Pro-Renal Study)

Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 10-12% of the adult population in many countries. In Brazil, there is no reliable information about the actual prevalence of CKD. Objective: To determine the prevalence of CKD by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria/albuminuria in an urban population randomly selected in Southern Brazil. Patients and Methods: 5,216 individuals were randomly selected out of a pool of 10,000 individuals identified from the database of a local energy company. The screening consisted of collection of demographic data, history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, kidney/cardiovascular disease in the family and obesity through the body mass index - BMI (CKD risk factors). Blood samples were collected for determination of serum creatinine and subsequent eGFR estimation by the MDRD formula and urine samples for determination of albuminuria by dipstick. Albuminuria was further evaluated by HemoCue© in a selected CKD risk group. Results: The population was predominantly Caucasians (93%), 64% were females and the mean age of participants was 45 years old (18-87). BMI (kg/m2) was 27±5. Albuminuria was found in 5.25% of individuals. 88.6% of this population had no CKD (eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73m2 & normoalbuminuria) and 11.4% were identified as having CKD, with majority on stages 3A (7.2%) and 3B (1.1%). Hypertension, diabetes, older age and obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of CKD (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of CKD in an urban population in southern Brazil mirrors other developed countries and indicates that kidney disease is an important public health problem in Brazil.