PowerPoint Slides for: Clinical Trial of Vadadustat in Patients with Anemia Secondary to Stage 3 or 4 Chronic Kidney Disease

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> Therapeutic options for the treatment of anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain limited. Vadadustat (AKB-6548) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hydroxylase domain (HIF-PHD) inhibitor that is being investigated for the treatment of anemia secondary to CKD. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A phase 2a, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial (NCT01381094) was undertaken in adults with anemia secondary to CKD stage 3 or 4. Eligible subjects were evenly randomized to 5 groups: 240, 370, 500, or 630 mg of once-daily oral vadadustat or placebo for 6 weeks. All subjects received low-dose supplemental oral iron (50 mg daily). The primary endpoint was the mean absolute change in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary endpoints included iron indices, safety, and tolerability. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Ninety-three subjects were randomized. Compared with placebo, vadadustat significantly increased Hb after 6 weeks in a dose-dependent manner (analysis of variance; <i>p </i>< 0.0001). Vadadustat increased the total iron-binding capacity and decreased concentrations of ferritin and hepcidin. The proportion of subjects with at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event was similar between vadadustat- and placebo-treated groups. No significant changes in blood pressure, vascular endothelial growth factor, C-reactive protein, or total cholesterol were observed. Limitations of this study included its small sample size and short treatment duration. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Vadadustat increased Hb levels and improved biomarkers of iron mobilization and utilization in patients with anemia secondary to stage 3 or 4 CKD. Global multicenter, randomized phase 3 trials are ongoing in non-dialysis-dependent and dialysis-dependent patients.</p>