Phylogeny and distribution of reproductive modes from Terrestrial reproduction as an adaptation to steep terrain in African toads

Most Credible Clade phylogeny for Bufonidae recovered from time-calibrated Bayesian MCMC tree searches using BEAST under a birth-death uncorrelated lognormal relaxed clock model. The two African clades are indicated (Clade A and B), and colours of tip labels refer to reproductive modes practiced. Pie charts on internal nodes of Clade A show posterior probabilities of node states for these same reproductive modes derived from stochastic character mapping (SCM).