Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of early Devonian mafic dike–granite association in the northern West Junggar, NW China

Mafic dike–granite associations are common in extensional tectonic settings and important and pivotal in reconstructing crust–mantle geodynamic processes. We report results of zircon U–Pb and hornblende 40Ar-39Ar ages and major-element and trace-element data for mafic dike–granite association from the northern West Junggar, in order to constrain their ages, petrogenesis, and geodynamic process. The mafic dike–granite association was emplaced in the early Devonian. The Xiemisitai monzogranites have high SiO2 contents and low MgO, Cr, and Ni concentrations, suggesting that they were mainly derived from crustal sources and were probably generated by partial melt of the juvenile mid-lower crust. The mafic dikes have low Mg# and Cr and Ni abundances, suggesting that they have experienced significant fractional crystallization. The Xiemisitai mafic dikes contain hornblende and biotite and display negative Nb–Ta–Ti anomalies, enrichment of LREEs and LILEs, and depletion of HREEs and HFSEs, consistent with an origin from a lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. In addition, the Xiemisitai mafic dikes are plotted within melting trends with little to no garnet (Cpx: Grt = 6:1) in their source. The La/Yb versus Tb/Yb plot also indicates the presence of less than 1% residual garnet in the source region for the Xiemisitai mafic dikes. Therefore, it can be inferred that the Xiemisitai mafic dikes were generated at a correspondingly shallow depth, mostly within the spinel stability field. The Xiemisitai mafic dikes were most probably generated by the partial melting of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle at relatively shallow depths (<80 km). The Xiemisitai mafic dike–granite association could have been triggered by asthenospheric upwelling as a result of the rollback of the subducted Irtysh–Zaysan oceanic lithosphere.