Particulate matter speciation profiles for light-duty gasoline vehicles in the United States

<div><p>Representative profiles for particulate matter particles less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) are developed from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study for use in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) vehicle emission model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and for inclusion in the EPA SPECIATE database for speciation profiles. The profiles are compatible with the inputs of current photochemical air quality models, including the Community Multiscale Air Quality Aerosol Module Version 6 (AE6). The composition of light-duty gasoline PM<sub>2.5</sub> emissions differs significantly between cold start and hot stabilized running emissions, and between older and newer vehicles, reflecting both impacts of aging/deterioration and changes in vehicle technology. Fleet-average PM<sub>2.5</sub> profiles are estimated for cold start and hot stabilized running emission processes. Fleet-average profiles are calculated to include emissions from deteriorated high-emitting vehicles that are expected to continue to contribute disproportionately to the fleet-wide PM<sub>2.5</sub> emissions into the future. The profiles are calculated using a weighted average of the PM<sub>2.5</sub> composition according to the contribution of PM<sub>2.5</sub> emissions from each class of vehicles in the on-road gasoline fleet in the Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The paper introduces methods to exclude insignificant measurements, correct for organic carbon positive artifact, and control for contamination from the testing infrastructure in developing speciation profiles. The uncertainty of the PM<sub>2.5</sub> species fraction in each profile is quantified using sampling survey analysis methods. The primary use of the profiles is to develop PM<sub>2.5</sub> emissions inventories for the United States, but the profiles may also be used in source apportionment, atmospheric modeling, and exposure assessment, and as a basis for light-duty gasoline emission profiles for countries with limited data. </p><p></p><p>Implications: </p><p>PM<sub>2.5</sub> speciation profiles were developed from a large sample of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested in the Kansas City area. Separate PM<sub>2.5</sub> profiles represent cold start and hot stabilized running emission processes to distinguish important differences in chemical composition. Statistical analysis was used to construct profiles that represent PM<sub>2.5</sub> emissions from the U.S. vehicle fleet based on vehicles tested from the 2005 calendar year Kansas City metropolitan area. The profiles have been incorporated into the EPA MOVES emissions model, as well as the EPA SPECIATE database, to improve emission inventories and provide the PM<sub>2.5</sub> chemical characterization needed by CMAQv5.0 for atmospheric chemistry modeling.</p><p></p><p></p></div>